Atopical dermatitis and topical ozone therapy

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic pruritic inflammatory skin
disease that occurs most frequently in children, but also affects adults. Atopic dermatitis is oftenassociated with elevated serum level of immunoglobulin E and a personal or family history of atopy,which describes a group of disorders that includes eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis.
Although sensitization to environmental or food allergens is clearly associated with the atopic dermatitis phenotype, it does not seem to be a causative factor but may be a contributory factor in asubgroup of patients with severe disease
.
The terms "dermatitis" and "eczema" are frequently used interchangeably. When the term "eczema" isused alone, it often refers to atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema). The term "eczematous" also connotes some crusting, serous oozing, or blister formation as opposed to mere erythema and scale.
Atopic dermatitis affects approximately 5 to 20 percentof children worldwide. In the United States, the prevalence is approximately 1 1 to 1 5 percent.
Data on the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in adults are limited and in most cases based upon selfadministered questionnaire information. In a Danish population-based study including approximately 1 6,500 adults aged 30 to 89 years, the one-year prevalence of atopic eczema was 1 4 percent. In a West Sweden study of approximately 30,000 individuals aged 1 6 to 75 years, the
current eczema prevalence was 1 1 percent. In a Danish cohort study including approximately 1 300 individuals aged 28 to 30 years who had been followed-up for 1 5 years, 1 0 percent reported atopic dermatitis, but 6 percent were found to have atopic dermatitis at clinical examination. In a United States cross-sectional study including nearly 1 300 adults, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis
was 7.3 percent (95% CI 5.9-8.8).
The incidence of atopic dermatitis appears to be increasing. It may occur in any race or geographic location, although there appears to be a higher incidence in urban areas and developed countries, especially Western societies. A systematic review of epidemiologic studies performed between 1 990 and 201 0 found an increasing trend in incidence and prevalence of atopic eczema in Africa, eastern Asia, western Europe, and parts of northern Europe.
In the vast majority of cases, atopic dermatitis has an onset before age five years, and prevalence data in children show a slight female to male preponderance (1 .3 to 1 ). Persistent atopic dermatitis may be present in approximately 50 percent of patients diagnosed with atopic dermatitis
during childhood . 

PATHOGENESIS

A multiplicity of factors, including skin barrier abnormalities, defects in innate immunity response, Th2-skewed adaptive immune response, and
altered skin resident microbial flora are involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Whether skin inflammation is initiated by skin barrier dysfunction ("outside-in" hypothesis) or by immune dysregulation ("inside-out" hypothesis) is still in debate.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occupies up to 90% of the lesional skin microbiome in atopical dermatitis patients and contributes to the frequent flare-ups and disease worsening of atopical dermatitis. Moreover, colonization of S. aureus may activate T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, the dominant immune phenotype in AD. Accumulating evidence has shown that the abundance of S. aureus increases significantly in the acute phase of AD and is closely correlated with the severity of the disease; while other major skin bacteria groups are decreased including Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium, and Malassezia. It has been shown that the diversity of skin microbiome correlates with disease severity for lesional and nonlesional skins in AD. However, how dysbiosis impacts on the onset or development of AD remains incompletely understood. The recent emerging 16S rDNA sequencing technology allows us to investigate the composition and the skin microbiome in a high-throughput mannee. Ozone, a classic oxidant and sterilizer, has been widely applied in clinic, which involves in mechanisms of antimicrobial effect, antioxidant defenses, immunoregulation, epigenetic modification, biosynthesis, analgesics and vasodilation. Ozonated water and oil have been widely used in treatment of inflammatory and infectious skin conditions because it can quickly relieve symptoms such as pruritus and edema thus mitigating disease severity. 

How to use coconut ozonated oil for atopical dermatitis

To reduce symptoms of atopic dermatitis, apply coconut ozonated oil to the skin twice a day, or more often if necessary. A person can use it like any other lotion or moisturizer.

A person may benefit from applying the oil more often during flare-ups of symptoms, and continuing to use the oil may prevent eczema symptoms from returning or getting worse.

If the skin feels dry in the mornings, try applying coconut ozonated oil before bed.

To treat eczema on the scalp, try using coconut ozonated oil instead of conditioner. Apply it directly and gently massage it into the scalp. Leave the oil on for a few minutes, then rinse it off with warm water.


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