Peptic ulcer, one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases, is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by ulceration in the regions of the upper gastrointestinal tract where parietal cells are found and where they secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsin. The anatomical sites where ulcer occurs commonly are stomach and duodenum, causing gastric and duodenal ulcer, respectively.
Physiopathology of ulcer is due to an imbalance between aggressive factors, such as acid, pepsin, Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and local mucosal defensive factors, such as mucus bicarbonate, blood flow and prostaglandins.
Several drugs are widely used to prevent or treat gastro-duodenal ulcers. These include H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and cytoprotectives. Due to problems associated with recurrence after treatment, there is therefore the need to seek alternative drug sources against ulcers.
In recent years, a widespread search has been launched to identify new gastroprotective drugs from natural sources.
Ozone therapy-a therapeutic and prophylactic alternative of peptic ulcer
The biological and therapeutic effects of ozone, a powerful antioxidant, originate from the generation of hydrogen peroxide. An innate defense system including antioxidant enzymes is stimulated as a result of reduced antioxidant levels and the generation of hydrogen peroxide, resulting in increased resistance to oxidative injury. Numerous studies have shown that ozone therapy is useful in the treatment of toxic mucosal injuries, burns, circulatory diseases, and the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury.
The many-sided action of ozone therapy in the treatment of ulcerous disease mostly develops through its anti-inflammatory, anti-helicobacter, regenerating and stimulating effects. Owing to its interaction with the microflora, ozone produces a powerful bactericidal effect and decreases resistance of the remaining microorganisms to antibiotics.
Active oxygen ensures elimination of tissue hypoxia and creates favorable conditions for regenerative processes improving the disturbed microcirculation at the pathological area through the spasmolytic action and normalization of the rheology of blood. This results in acceleration of ulcer epithelization, disappearance of mucosal infiltrate much faster than after the traditional therapy.
A decrease in the inflammation of gastric or duodenal mucous membrane is achieved both through the systemic action via the parenteral route of administration of ozone/oxygen gas mixture and local action of ozonated products. An increase in the immunity through ozone therapy considerably improves remote results of treatment and reduces a risk of disease recidivation. Ozone therapy can be used as a monotherapy or in combination with other therapeutic methods.
One of the clinical investigations included 69 patients (10 with gastric ulcer and 59 with duodenal ulcer) in the period of aggravation, who received ozone therapy as a monotherapy. The results received in the treatment of 8 patients with gastric ulcerous disease were interpreted as a significant improvement: complete ulcer scarring and disappearance of all disease symptoms. In 2 cases clinical symptoms of disease were completely removed, but ulcer healing was not complete, and the result of treatment was evaluated as an improvement in the patient's condition.
The patients with duodenal ulcerous disease after the course of ozone therapy showed a significant improvement in 56% of cases, an improvement - in 39% of cases, a partial improvement with some symptoms remained and incomplete ulcer healing - in 5% of cases. Ozone therapy can be used both as a monotherapy and in addition to drug therapies. Its anti-bacterial effect is particularly important. It can substitute the use of antibiotics and metronidazol. Moreover, ulcer healing, elimination of mucosal infiltrate, eradication of Helicobacter Pylori are achieved through ozone therapy in considerably more cases than with traditional treatment
1 tablespoon of ozonated olive oil in either two doses of (1) tbs. in the morning and (1) tbs. at night.