What are ozonides?
Ozonide, any of a class of chemical compounds formed by reactions of ozone with other compounds. Organic ozonides, often made from unsaturated fats, most of them decomposing rapidly into oxygen compounds, such as aldehydes, ketones, and peroxides, or reacting rapidly with oxidizing or reducing agents. The term ‘ozonide’ was historically used to describe a product that had been ozonated from unsaturated compounds. Ozonides were mostly used in topical preparations in the past, and the majority of the papers published on the compound reported its skin health benefits. Some individuals have been reporting the health-supporting properties of ozonides since 1902, and William J. Knox in 1917 found that the product–combined with castor oil–produced a gentle laxative .
1.Stimulation of oxygen metabolism
Cell function functionality is good when they efficiently consume oxygen for their vital functions and at the same time are able to inactivate the intermediate aggressive species that derive from it.
The fact is that during the metabolic reactions required for the production of ATP the so called reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other cytotoxic substances are formed.
Under normal conditions, cells neutralize these substances through two types of mechanisms: an endogenous one linked to enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and an exogenous one requiring use of antioxidants in the diet.
In particular situations, such as acute and/or chronic inflammatory states, hypooxygenation states, enzyme deficit due to psychological-physical stress or hyponutrition, excessive exposure to pollution and ultraviolet rays, cells produce excessive ROS which cannot be neutralized by enzymatic activity.
Excess free radicals interact with the unsaturated fatty acids that are present in the cells resulting in lipoperoxidation, an effect linked to ageing. The positive effect induced by low ozone concentrations on cellular oxidative stress was proposed by Leon Fernandez in 2000 at the International Congress of Pharmacology in Florence.
The theory is based on the fact that low non-toxic doses of ozone increase the production of activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and SOD.
The hypothesis is supported by Rao and Shaha, who have demonstrated the shown that the formation of glutathione S-transferase after exposure to hydrogen peroxide.
A further proof of the protective action induced by low concentrations of ozone was presented by Professor Lamberto Red at the congress organized in London in 2001 by the International Ozone Association. This theory attributes to ozone an antigenic property similar to that of a vaccine, obtained by removing the pathogenic power of a substance, leaving only the function of stimulus.
The revitalizing effect of ozonides is due to improved metabolism of oxygen as well as of sugars and lipids: more energy is produced and the excessive accumulation of unused nutrients is avoided.
These effects are achieved by means of the normal metabolic systems of “controlled combustion”: glycolysis, fatty acid cycle and respiratory chain.
Once inside the cell, the ozone metabolites produce activation of the enzyme Glutathione peroxidase which reduces them to alcohol at the expense of Reduced glutathione (GSH).
Glutathione Reductase is also activated and it reduces Glutathione (GSSC) to GSH at the expense of NADPH.
To neutralize oxidizing stress, GSH/GSSG ratio in cytoplasm should be maintained at the optimal value of approximately 97:1 and this is possible thanks to the action of the activated Glutathione Reductase, coupled to the NADPH/NADP system, with consequent proportionate increase in NADPH.
This causes an acceleration of glycolysis with production of ATP and consequent increase in energy availability for cells.
These effects of reactivation of the various enzymatic cycles lead to an increase in metabolism levels of fatty acids, lipids and phospholipids, contributing to the elimination of fats and greater energy availability by the cell.
The increase in available energy also enables recovery of optimal cell functionality, improving their vitality and contrasting the effects of ageing.
In red blood cells one of the other effects observed is increased absorption of oxygen, which is then transferred to other cells in the organism:
It is therefore feasible to assume improved prevention of degenerative diseases of the epidermal tissue, defence against infections and enhanced metabolic processes.
The main biological effects of ozone and its metabolites therefore are:
- Anti-inflammatory action
- Increase of subcutaneous blood flow in the zone of application
- Anti-irritant and decongestant action
- Anti-stress and anti-fatigue action
By increasing the amount of oxygen present in the body, ozone therapy may help to reduce the clogging of blood cells; detoxify the liver; decrease uric acid in the body; improve circulation and oxygen supply; kill viruses, bacteria and fungus and improve the activity of the white blood cells.
In medical use the gas produced from medical grade oxygen is administered in precise therapeutic doses, and never via inhalation. In our alternative medicine clinic, ozone therapy is one of the safest treatments available and it’s very rare for patients to experience side effects.
In a 1980 study done by the German Medical Society for Ozone Therapy, examined results from over 5,579,238 ozone therapy treatments spanning 644 therapists and 384,775 patients. Of these, there were only 0.000007%, (40 cases) of side effects noted. Ozone statistically is proven to be one of the safest medical therapies available.